Notice also that the different emotions all use the Theories of emotions appraisal components, and many emotions take the same values for several of the components. For instance, consider an individual who is presented with a gift by a friend.
James—Lange theory In his article  William James argued that feelings and emotions were secondary to physiological phenomena.
There are two constituents of a primordial emotion--the specific sensation which when severe may be imperious, and the compelling intention for gratification by a consummatory act.
The second cognitive revolution. Having this evaluative component in the process means that an emotion is not a simple and direct response to a stimulus.
But, joy includes the appraisals that there is a desirable state and it is present, and relief includes the appraisals that there is an undesirable state and it is absent.
An emotion is a response to a specific stimulus that can be internal, like a belief or a memory. The later part of the emotion process is a bodily response, for example, changes in heart rate, skin conductance, and facial expression.
Moreover, emotions appear to serve an important function, which has led many to think that the certain emotions have been selected to deal with particular problems and challenges that organisms regularly encounter.
Social interactionist perspectives pp. The basic idea is that when a stimulus is encountered it is appraised along these five dimensions. Classic and contemporary readings 2nd ed. An expert system approach.
Emotions can be understood as either states or as processes. Emotional phenotype temperaments affect social connectedness and fitness in complex social systems Kurt Kortschal Rather the bodily changes themselves perceive the meaningful content of the emotion because of being causally triggered by certain situations.
It has also been suggested that emotions affect heuristics, feelings and gut-feeling reactions are often used as shortcuts to process information and influence behavior.
In any case, the consequence is that there can be a feeling even if the body is not involved.
These norms and values influence what the appropriate objects of emotion are that is, what events should make a person angry, happy, jealous, and so onand they also influence how emotions should be expressed. Evolutionary Theories The evolutionary approach focuses on the historical setting in which emotions developed.
In the case of the emotions, which he calls "basic adaptations needed by all organisms in the struggle for individual survival"p. Change to a trait can occur because of natural selection, chance, genetic drift, or because the trait is genetically linked with some other trait.
In order to compare and contrast these theories of emotion, it is helpful to first explain them in terms of the interactions between their components: An affect program emotion is, "no different from a trait like the human arm, which has unique features but can be homologized more or less broadly with everything from a chimpanzee arm to a cetacean fin"p.
An outline of the social constructionist viewpoint.A summary of Theories of Emotion in 's Emotion. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Emotion and what it means.
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The James-Lange theory is one of the best-known examples of a physiological theory of emotion. Independently proposed by psychologist William James and physiologist Carl Lange, the James-Lange theory of emotion suggests that emotions occur as a result of physiological reactions to events.
Their theory is sometimes called the two-factor theory of emotion. This isn't because two men helped to develop it, but because this theory maintains that the experience of emotion depends on two factors: physiological arousal and cognitive processing.
Theories of Emotion Emotion is a complex, subjective experience accompanied by biological and behavioral changes. Emotion involves feeling, thinking, activation of the nervous system, physiological changes, and behavioral changes such as facial expressions.
The two most well-known cognitive theories are the two-factor and the cognitive-mediational theories of emotion. According to the two-factor theory, proposed by Schachter and Singer, the stimulus leads to the arousal that is labeled using the cognition that leads to the emotion.
Researchers have developed several theories of how human emotions arise and are represented in the brain. The mechanisms behind our experience of emotions and our cognitive processing of them remains a central topic of research and debate.Download